Mansonella perstans filariasis: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

Mansonella perstans filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by mansonella perstans parasitic in the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pericardium, mesenterium, and peritoneum, and is transmitted by midge bites.


Causes

Adult females of mansonella perstans are (70 - 80) mm x 120μm in size, adult males are 45mm x 60μm in size, and microfilariae are 200μm x 4μm in size.

After entrance of the human body, mansonella perstans mostly parasitize the deep lymphatic system, predominantly the lower limbs, scrotum, spermatic cord, groin, abdominal cavity, and renal pelvis. The migration and metabolites cause inflammation of the subcutaneous connective tissue, resulting in migratory masses or swelling. The worms can enter aperiodically the peripheral blood, causing fever and eosinophilia.


Signs and Symptoms

The worms can parasitize for a long time without symptoms. The clinical symptoms include angioneurotic edema, headache, arthralgia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, and eosinophilia. In severe patients, there may be pericarditis and even heart failure.


Diagnosis

If there are microfilariae found in the blood, the disease can be diagnosed.


Treatment

The treatment regimen is mebendazole 100mg orally twice a day for 30 days, or albendazole 400mg orally twice a day for 10 days.