Balanitis due to pseudomonas aeruginosa: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

The disease is rare and often caused by parasitic pseudomonas aeruginosa due to the local application of glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and antifungal agents.


Causes

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus, is widely present in moist natural environments, mainly in the soil, water, and intestines of few persons, and can also temporarily parasitize the anus, genitals, armpits, and external auditory canal. Under normal circumstances, its growth is inhibited by Gram-positive cocci, generally nonpathogenic. However, the bacterium can quickly reproduce in the burns, ulcers, and moist skin, causing skin infections. Systemic infections usually occur in persons with low immunity, such as patients whose normal microflora being inhibited by antibiotics or glucocorticoids, tumor patients, patients with granulocytopenia caused by various causes, patients with immunodeficiency caused by chronic wasting diseases, frail old adults, and malnourished infants. If a healthy person is immersed in water for a long time, the infection of the bacteria can also occur. The bacteria can also cause nosocomial infections by contamination of hospital bedpans and sheets, and has become one of the main pathogens of nosocomial infections in recent years.

Studies have shown that the pathogenicity of the bacteria is mainly caused by the secreted exotoxin, and the collagenase, elastase, and phospholipase secreted by the bacteria are involved in the disease. A typical strain produces two pigments of blueish green pyocyanin and yellowish green pyoverdin.

Systemic pseudomonas aeruginosa infection can cause sepsis, and patients present with fever, jaundice, splenomegaly, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and meningitis. Cutaneous pseudomonas aeruginosa infection often occurs in the persistently moist lesion sites, especially on the periumbilical and burned surfaces of infants, as well as in macerated toes, external auditory canal, and auricle.


Signs and Symptoms

The clinical manifestation is deep erosion in the glans penis, with subjective pain, generally without systemic symptoms.


Diagnosis

According to the typical clinical manifestations and results of bacterial culture, the disease can be diagnosed.


Treatment

If abundant exudate is present, wet compress with saline or potassium permanganate solution should be performed. When the exudate is reduced, topical sulfadiazine cream or gentamicin cream can be applied.